There is no doubt in my mind that machine learning and other automated techniques for spotting patterns in the mass of technology logs and events are the only way forward in cyber security.  My concern is how everyone of the 5 million UK businesses are going to afford these techniques and recruit and retain the right staff to interpret analysis and make decisions in real time to keep thier businesses secure?  Organisations like William Hill have established, experienced cyber security teams - they use machine learning but still invest significan time putting these patterns in context. Can generalist IT staff really be expected to evaluate what is "normal" in a security context as well as doing thier day jobs - or are most firms still gambling that it will never happen to them?